Preventing pancreatic islet loss after transplantation

Feb 02, 2010

Although transplantation of pancreatic islets is an attractive way to treat type 1 diabetes, early islet loss soon after transplantation has limited its clinical use. By studying islet transplantation in a mouse model of diabetes, a team of researchers, at the RIKEN Research Center for Allergy and Immunology, Japan, and Fukuoka University, Japan, has now identified a potential new set of targets to improve the efficiency of pancreatic islet transplantation.

Previous studies have identified an immune mechanism essential for early loss of transplanted islets: expressing the proteins Gr-1 and CD11b produce the soluble molecule IFN-gamma in a process that is dependent on immune cells known as NKT cells.

The team, led by Masaru Taniguchi and Yohichi Yasunami, found that the protein HMGB1 plays a crucial role in the initial events of early loss of transplanted islets in the of diabetes. Of potential clinical significance, treatment with an antibody targeting HMGB1 prevented early pancreatic islet loss and inhibited IFN-gamma production by NKT cells and Gr-1+CD11b+ cells.

Furthermore, mice lacking either of the two proteins to which HMGB1 binds failed to exhibit early pancreatic islet loss. Additional analysis identified the molecular pathway linking HMGB1 to NKT cell activation and subsequent NKT cell-dependent IFN-gamma production by Gr-1+CD11b+ cells, and targeting some of these molecules prevented early pancreatic islet loss. These data provide several potential drug targets for improving the efficiency of pancreatic islet transplantation in humans.

Explore further: CDC: Raw tuna suspected as Salmonella source in outbreak

More information: View this article at: www.jci.org/articles/view/41360?key=82f6533c5783a48c4c6c

Related Stories

The new source of islet cells

Oct 25, 2007

The shortage of islet cells limits the development of islet transplantation. One new approach was reported in the October 21 issue of the World Journal of Gastroenterology because of its great significance in enhancing the ou ...

Promising advances in islet cell transplants for diabetes

Jun 09, 2008

University of Illinois at Chicago researchers have modified the procedure for islet cell transplantation and achieved insulin independence in diabetes patients with fewer but better-functioning pancreatic islet cells.

Studies test new approaches to islet transplantation

May 01, 2008

Researchers from 11 medical centers in the United States, Canada, Sweden, and Norway have begun testing new approaches to transplanting clusters of insulin-producing islets in adults with difficult-to-control type 1 diabetes. ...

Recommended for you

Aspirin to improve leg ulcers

7 hours ago

Researchers are looking at whether aspirin can improve the healing rates of leg ulcers in older adults.

Sierra Leone marks grim Ebola anniversary

11 hours ago

On May 24 last year a pregnant woman and an older housewife staggered into Kenema hospital in eastern Sierra Leone and were diagnosed within a day as the country's first Ebola cases.

MSF fighting cholera outbreak in Tanzania refugee camps

May 24, 2015

Medical charity Medecins sans Frontieres (MSF, Doctors Without Borders) said Sunday it had launched emergency treatment centres in Tanzania, where thousands of Burundians fleeing unrest have been hit by cholera.

User comments : 0

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.