# Explained: Linear and nonlinear systems

##### February 26, 2010 by Larry Hardesty

Much scientific research across a range of disciplines tries to find linear approximations of nonlinear behaviors. But what does that mean?

Spend some time browsing around the web site of MIT’s and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, and you'll find hundreds if not thousands of documents with titles like "On Modeling Nonlinear Shape-and-Texture Appearance Manifolds" and "Non-linear Drawing systems," or, on the contrary, titles like “Packrat Parsing: Simple, Powerful, Lazy, Linear Time” and "Linear-Time-Encodable and List-Decodable Codes."

The distinction between linear and nonlinear phenomena is everywhere in the sciences and engineering. But what exactly does it mean?

Suppose that, without much effort, you can toss a tennis ball at about 20 miles per hour. Now suppose that you’re riding a bicycle at 10 miles per hour and toss a tennis ball straight ahead. The ball will travel forward at 30 miles per hour. Linearity is, essentially, the idea that combining two inputs — like the velocity of your arm and the velocity of the bike — will yield the sum of their respective outputs — the velocity of the ball.

Now suppose that, instead of tossing a tennis ball, you toss a paper airplane. Depending on the airplane’s design, it might sail straight ahead, or it might turn loops. Some paper planes seem to behave more erratically the harder you throw them: the bike’s added velocity might make it almost impossible to get the plane to do anything predictable. That’s because airflow over a paper plane’s wings can be very nonlinear.

If the had built-in and an onboard computer, it could calculate the of the tennis ball in a fraction of a second. But it could never hope to calculate all the airflows over the paper plane’s wing in time to do anything useful. “I think that it’s a reasonable statement that we mostly understand linear phenomena,” says Pablo Parrilo, the Finmeccanica Career Development Professor of Engineering MIT’s Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems.

To make the distinction between linearity and nonlinearity a bit more precise, recall that a mathematical equation can be thought of as a function — something that maps inputs to outputs. The equation y = x, for instance, is equivalent to a function that takes as its input a value for x and produces as its output a value for y. The same is true of y = x2.

The equation y = x is linear because adding together inputs yields the sum of their respective outputs: 1 = 1, 2 = 2, and 1 + 2 = 1 + 2. But that’s not true of y = x2: if x is 1, y is 1; if x is 2, y is 4; but if x is 3, y is not 5.

This example illustrates the origin of the term “linear”: the graph of y = x is a straight line, while the graph of y = x2 is a curve. But the basic definition of linearity holds for much more complicated equations, such as the differential equations used in engineering to describe dynamic systems.

While linear functions are easy enough to define, the term “nonlinear” takes in everything else. “There’s this famous quote — I’m not sure who said it first — that the theory of nonlinear systems is like a theory of non-elephants,” Parrilo says. “It’s impossible to build a theory of nonlinear systems, because arbitrary things can satisfy that definition.” Because linear equations are so much easier to solve than nonlinear ones, much research across a range of disciplines is devoted to finding linear approximations of nonlinear phenomena.

Russ Tedrake, for example, the X Consortium Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, has adapted theoretical work done by Parrilo to create novel control systems for robots. A walking robot’s gait could be the result of a number of mechanical systems working together in a nonlinear way. The collective forces exerted by all those systems might be impossible to calculate on the fly. But within a narrow range of starting conditions, a linear equation might describe them well enough for practical purposes. Parrilo’s theoretical tools allow Tedrake to determine how well a given linear approximation will work within how wide a range of starting conditions. His control system thus consists of a whole battery of linear control equations, one of which is selected depending on the current state of the robot.

## Related Stories

#### Nonlinear thinker: Making sense of previously insoluble problems

January 29, 2010

If an airplane is cruising along and raises the flaps on its wings a degree or two, it will tilt upward. If it raises the flaps twice as much, it will tilt upward about twice as much. But if it tilts upward too far — generally ...

#### Solving big problems with new quantum algorithm

November 9, 2009

(PhysOrg.com) -- In a recently published paper, Aram Harrow at the University of Bristol and colleagues from MIT in the United States have discovered a quantum algorithm that solves large problems much faster than conventional ...

#### Quantum computing may actually be useful, after all

October 9, 2009

(PhysOrg.com) -- In recent years, quantum computers have lost some of their luster. In the 1990s, it seemed that they might be able to solve a class of difficult but common problems — the so-called NP-complete problems ...

#### Study Shows Time Traveling May Not Increase Computational Power

October 22, 2009

(PhysOrg.com) -- For more than 50 years, physicists have been intrigued by the concept of closed time-like curves (CTCs). Because a CTC returns to its starting point, it raises the possibility of traveling backward in time. ...

#### Being Isaac Newton: Computer derives natural laws from raw data

April 2, 2009

If Isaac Newton had access to a supercomputer, he'd have had it watch apples fall - and let it figure out the physical matters. But the computer would have needed to run an algorithm, just developed by Cornell researchers, ...

#### New study cites lower rate of quakes along some subduction zones

December 4, 2009

Most earthquakes occur along fault lines, which form boundaries between two tectonic plates. As the relative speed of the plates around a fault increases, is there a corresponding increase in the number of earthquakes produced ...

## Recommended for you

#### Canada confirms Arctic discovery of 200-year-old ship

September 26, 2016

Canada's parks department on Monday confirmed the discovery of a British exploration ship that vanished during a storied Arctic expedition in 1846.

#### Ancestor of arthropods had the mouth of a penis worm

September 26, 2016

Imagine a meter long worm with 12 stubby legs and matching sets of flaps running down the body. On the head is a large pair of spiny appendages used for grasping prey that transport victims into a circular mouth with several ...

#### The 17th-century man who was buried face down

September 26, 2016

In 2013 archaeologists discovered a cemetery in use as long ago as the early Middle Ages in the Bernese Lakeland region of Switzerland. One of the bodies interred there was buried in an unusual way, and in order to better ...

#### New findings give insight into life and death of 5000-year-old ice mummy

September 26, 2016

The copper used to make the axe blade of 5,000-year-old mummy Ötzi did not come from the Alpine region as had previously been supposed, but from ore mined in southern Tuscany. Ötzi was probably not involved in working the ...

#### Human DNA tied mostly to single exodus from Africa long ago (Update)

September 21, 2016

A study of hundreds of new genomes from across the globe has yielded insights into modern genetic diversity and ancient population dynamics, including compelling evidence that essentially all non-Africans today descend from ...

#### Digitally unwrapped scroll reveals earliest Old Testament scripture (Update)

September 21, 2016

An extremely fragile, ancient Hebrew scroll has been digitally unwrapped for the first time, revealing the earliest copy of Old Testament Bible scripture since the Dead Sea Scrolls, researchers said Wednesday.