When It Comes to Galaxies, Diversity Is Everywhere

September 30, 2008
Credit: NASA, ESA, J. Dalcanton and B. Williams (University of Washington)

(PhysOrg.com) -- There's an old saying in astronomy: "Galaxies are like people. They're only normal until you get to know them." That view is supported by a group of astronomers after using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to study a large number of galaxies in our cosmic backyard.

The detailed survey, called the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) program, observed roughly 14 million stars in 69 galaxies. The survey explored a region called the "Local Volume," and the galaxy distances ranged from 6.5 million light-years to 13 million light-years from Earth. The Local Volume resides beyond the Local Group of galaxies, an even nearer collection of a few dozen galaxies within about 3 million light-years of our Milky Way Galaxy.

A typical galaxy contains billions of stars but looks "smooth" when viewed through a telescope, because the stars are blurred together. In contrast, the galaxies in the new survey are close enough to Earth that the sharp "eyes" of Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 can resolve their brightest individual stars. By measuring the brightness and colors of these stars, scientists can derive the local history of star formation within a galaxy and can tease out subtle features in a galaxy's shape.

"Past Hubble observations of the local neighborhood have provided dramatic insights into the star-formation histories of individual galaxies, but the number of galaxies studied in detail has been rather small," said Julianne Dalcanton of the University of Washington in Seattle and leader of the ANGST survey. The survey's results were submitted to The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. Another paper that details the star-formation history in galaxy M81 has been submitted to The Astronomical Journal.

"Instead of picking and choosing particular galaxies to study, our survey will be complete by virtue of looking at 'all' the galaxies in the region. This gives us a multi-color picture of when and where all the stars in the local universe formed."

Many stars in nearby galaxies are the fossil equivalents of the active star formation seen in galaxies in the distant universe. "When we look back in time at distant, young galaxies, we see lots of vigorous star formation. However, we can only guess as to what those galaxies might eventually turn into," Dalcanton explained. "Using the galaxies in the nearby universe as a 'fossil record,' we can compare them with young galaxies far away. This comparison gives us a history of star formation and provides a better understanding of the masses, structures, and environments of the galaxies."

Early results of the ANGST survey show the rich diversity of galaxies. Some galaxies are made up entirely of ancient stars, while others have been forming stars nearly continuously during their whole lives. There are even a few examples of galaxies that have only started forming stars in the recent past.

"With these images, we can see what makes each galaxy unique," said team member Benjamin Williams of the University of Washington. "When we look at the distribution and development of stars in each survey galaxy, we can learn how differences in the galaxies' histories have produced the diversity of galaxy shapes and colors."

The ANGST survey also includes maps of many large galaxies, including M81. "With these maps, we can track when the different parts of the galaxy formed," explained Evan Skillman of the University of Minnesota, describing work by students Dan Weisz of the University of Minnesota and Stephanie Gogarten of the University of Washington.

In a separate paper describing the star-formation history in M81, astronomers confirmed that massive spiral galaxies formed most of their stars in the early universe. Analyzing M81's outer disk, the astronomers found that most of the stars formed more than 7 billion years ago, when the universe was half its present age. M81 and other mammoth galaxies also experienced rapid enrichment of heavy elements, such as carbon, through the deaths of massive stars in supernova explosions. "We were surprised by how quickly the elements formed and how the subsequent star-formation rate for the bulk of the stars in M81 changed after that," said Williams, the paper's lead author.

"This rich survey will add to Hubble's legacy, providing a foundation for future studies," Dalcanton said. "The ANGST sample offers superb targets for future multi-wavelength surveys, which will allow us to combine the star-formation maps with the properties of gas and dust in the galaxies. With this information, we will be able to trace the complete cycle of star formation in detail."

Provided by Space Telescope Science Institute

Explore further: Faint dwarf galaxies in Fornax shed light on a cosmological mystery

Related Stories

Scientists detect stellar streams around Magellanic Clouds

November 23, 2015

(Phys.org)—Astronomers from the University of Cambridge, U.K., have detected a number of narrow streams and diffuse debris clouds around two nearby irregular dwarf galaxies called the Magellanic Clouds. The research also ...

Peering into building blocks of galaxies

November 16, 2015

(Phys.org)—When a giant cloud of molecular gas condenses, star clusters are born. It may sound simple but the formation of star clusters is a very complex process, not yet completely understood by scientists. By peering ...

Machine learning could solve riddles of galaxy formation

November 11, 2015

A new machine-learning simulation system developed at the University of Illinois promises cosmologists an expanded suite of galaxy models - a necessary first step to developing more accurate and relevant insights into the ...

Recommended for you

Getting into the flow on the International Space Station

December 1, 2015

Think about underground water and gas as they filter through porous materials like soil and rock beds. On Earth, gravity forces water and gas to separate as they flow through the ground, cleaning the water and storing it ...

Exiled exoplanet likely kicked out of star's neighborhood

December 1, 2015

A planet discovered last year sitting at an unusually large distance from its star - 16 times farther than Pluto is from the sun - may have been kicked out of its birthplace close to the star in a process similar to what ...

Cassini mission provides insight into Saturn

December 1, 2015

Scientists have found the first direct evidence for explosive releases of energy in Saturn's magnetic bubble using data from the Cassini spacecraft, a joint mission between NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Italian ...

Timing a sextuple quasar

December 1, 2015

Quasars are galaxies with massive black holes at their cores around which vast amounts of energy are being radiated. Indeed, so much light is emitted that the nucleus of a quasar is much brighter than the rest of the entire ...


Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

1 / 5 (1) Sep 30, 2008
Gathering data about the specific rates of growth is probably inaccurate because we cannot know how many supernovas occurred in the local galaxies unless you assume that everything in the universe was created at the same instant in time.

Researchers would also have to assume that the galaxies respond to supernovas the same way.

Then again, there are a log of galaxies out there.
not rated yet Oct 01, 2008
In a related paper posted at the arXiv preprint site for 10-1-08 ("The Recent Star Formation Histories of M 81 Group Dwarf Irregular Galaxies" by Weisz et al [arXiv:0809.5059]) nine dIGs are imaged by HST-ACS & star formation rates and SF histories are derived.These observations also shed light on the SF history of M 81 itself & its' environs. A link is included to a high-resolution version of the paper, where full-res images of these nine dwarfs can be fully enjoyed. If spiral galaxies formed by accretion of nearby dwarf galaxies, studies such as this will help astronomers tease out the details of this formation. A fascinating paper with great Hubble images to boot!
not rated yet Oct 01, 2008
Note that NGC 3077, which is imaged in the above Hubble release and also a member of the M 81 Group is not among the dwarf galaxies studied in the paper mentioned in my previous post.
not rated yet Oct 03, 2008
Detailed info on the star formation history in M81 was posted on the arXiv server on 10-3-08 as "The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury II. Young Stars and their Relation to Halpha and UV Emission Timescales in the M81 Outer Disk" by Gogarten et al(arXiv:0810.0266). Many aspects of the star formation history of M81 are included as well as many great Hubble, GALEX & Spitzer images of the outer disk of this nearby galaxy.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.