Transgenic maize is more susceptible to aphids

Aug 29, 2007

The environmental consequences of transgenic crops are the focus of numerous investigations, such as the one published in the journal PloS ONE, which was carried out by Cristina Faria and her colleagues, under the supervision of Ted Turlings, professor in chemical ecology at the University of Neuchâtel.

The researchers observed that most transgenic maize lines were significantly more susceptible to the aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis than their conventional equivalents. "We have studied six lines of Bt maize containing an insecticidal gene derived from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis. The toxin produced by these genes is very specific and only affects the caterpillars feeding on the plants, not the aphids. Five of the lines contained up to twice the number of aphids", states Cristina Faria. She does, however, go on to clarify what seems, at a first glance, detrimental to the plant.

"It all depends on the economic threshold for aphids in the region where maize is being grown. If these insects are not a major problem, then it is rather good news." In fact, aphids produce honeydew, a sugar-rich substance that can be used as a food source by beneficial insects, such as the parasitic wasp Cotesia marginiventris. This parasitoid helps the plant when it is attacked by caterpillars. It kills these pests by laying its eggs in them. In cages with aphid-infested Bt maize, Cotesia wasps lived almost twice as long and parasitized 37.5% more caterpillars. Hence, an increase in the number of aphids might help to control caterpillars in areas where these are a major problem. "However, in regions where aphids are considered to be a pest, growing Bt maize could be problematic," adds the biologist. Aphids mainly damage plants by transmitting viruses and using Bt maize might amplify this problem.

So where does this unexpected difference between conventional and Bt maize come from" The insertion of the Bt gene could have an effect on other genes, but the NCCR Plant Survival researchers rather think that by producing Bt toxin the plant's chemistry is otherwise altered. In Bt plants, they measured slightly higher concentrations of amino acids, which are essential nutrients for aphids. Moreover, the plant may mobilise energy resources for the production of the Bt toxin at the cost of producing substances that it normally uses in defence against aphids.

Citation: Faria CA, Wäckers FL, Pritchard J, Barrett DA, Turlings TC (2007) High Susceptibility of Bt Maize to Aphids Enhances the Performance of Parasitoids of Lepidopteran Pests. PLoS ONE 2(7): e600.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000600

Source: Public Library of Science

Explore further: Winter proves tough on deer, states weigh hunting limits

Related Stories

How climate science denial affects the scientific community

1 hour ago

Climate change denial in public discourse may encourage climate scientists to over-emphasise scientific uncertainty and is also affecting how they themselves speak - and perhaps even think - about their own research, a new ...

Winter proves tough on deer, states weigh hunting limits

7 hours ago

Wildlife regulators in states where deer hunting is a way of life and an important tourism draw are implementing or considering deep cuts to hunting permits after a tough winter killed off many of the animals.

Recommended for you

Winter proves tough on deer, states weigh hunting limits

7 hours ago

Wildlife regulators in states where deer hunting is a way of life and an important tourism draw are implementing or considering deep cuts to hunting permits after a tough winter killed off many of the animals.

Extreme excavation: Fire ant style

7 hours ago

Fans of The Lord of the Rings may disagree, but when it comes to exquisite excavation, the dwarves of Moria have nothing on the mighty fire ants of Georgia Tech. But Dan Goldman and Michael Goodisman aren't fascinated by ...

What drives the evolution of bird nest structures?

10 hours ago

How to protect your chicks from predators? Build a dome over them! There is tremendous diversity among the nests of birds, in nest location, structure, materials, and more, but we know very little about the forces that shaped ...

User comments : 0

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.