Star Cluster Holds Midweight Black Hole, VLA Indicates

May 28, 2007
The Very Large Array
The Very Large Array CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF

Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope have greatly strengthened the case that supermassive black holes at the cores of galaxies may have formed through mergers of smaller black holes. Their VLA studies showed that a globular star cluster in the galaxy M31 probably has a black hole with 20,000 times the mass of the Sun at its core.

"That amount of mass is midway between the black holes left when giant stars explode as supernovae and the supermassive black holes with millions of times the mass of the Sun. It suggests that there is a clear path for forming the supermassive ones through successive mergers of smaller black holes," said James Ulvestad, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Ulvestad, Jenny Greene of Princeton University, and Luis Ho of the Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Honolulu, Hawaii.

Black holes appear to be intimately connected with the formation of massive spherical bulges in galaxies. Astronomers have found a direct relationship between the mass of the black hole in such a galaxy and the mass of its central bulge. However, it is unclear whether small galaxies contain smaller black holes, and their discovery may lead to new insights about the impact of black holes on galaxy formation. As Greene stated, "In recent years, we have been detecting black holes with masses between 100,000 and a few million times the mass of the Sun, but less massive objects have been exceptionally difficult to find."

Based on observations with optical telescopes, Karl Gebhardt of the University of Texas at Austin and his colleagues, which include Ho, suggested in 2002 that the globular cluster G1 in the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) contains a compact concentration of mass that is intermediate in mass between stellar and supermassive black holes. Other researchers disputed that conclusion. According to Ho, "In 2005, we obtained better data that clinched the case that the cluster really does contain a dark object with 20,000 times the mass of the Sun. What we can't be sure of, however, is whether the dark mass is a single object --- that is, an intermediate-mass black hole --- or a cluster of smaller dark objects such as neutron stars or stellar-sized black holes."

"Since this globular cluster, G1, is by far the best candidate for containing such an intermediate-mass black hole, we felt it was important to help resolve the question," Ho added.

Last year, researchers detected X-rays emitted from G1. That allowed Ulvestad and his team to apply a test that could distinguish between an intermediate-mass black hole and the smaller compact objects. Astronomers have found that, for a given X-ray brightness, a supermassive black hole is much brighter at radio wavelengths than a stellar-mass black hole.

Using the VLA, Ulvestad, Greene and Ho found that the radio brightness of G1 was between what would be expected for a stellar-mass black hole and what would be expected for a supermassive one. "The radio brightness nicely fits the prediction for a 20,000-solar-mass black hole," Ulvestad said.

Some globular clusters in our own Milky Way galaxy are suspected to contain black holes with masses just a few hundred times the mass of the Sun. These may be detected when the Expanded VLA, with much greater sensitivity than the current telescope, comes on line soon after 2010. "With this capability, we could close the gap between black holes with masses 10 times that of the Sun and those with masses more than 10,000 times that of the Sun," Ulvestad said. "This should lead to a greater understanding of their importance as stepping stones toward the most massive black holes we observe in the centers of many galaxies."

Source: National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Explore further: Black hole awakens after 26 years

Related Stories

Black hole awakens after 26 years

November 5, 2015

On 15 June 2015, V404 Cygni (V404 Cyg), a binary system comprising a sun-like star orbiting a black hole, woke up. A huge outburst of energy across the electromagnetic spectrum 'lit up' the sky. The last such outburst was ...

What is the black hole information paradox?

October 29, 2015

In my day, things were simple. Robot dogs had wheels and laser noses. School was uphill both ways. Unwanted children removed themselves from lawns, and we didn't need those horrible electrified tentacle arms. The cut of my ...

After 100 years, Einstein's theory stands test of time

October 20, 2015

Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity is about to celebrate its 100th anniversary, and his revolutionary hypothesis has withstood the test of time, despite numerous expert attempts to find flaws.

Final kiss of two stars heading for catastrophe

October 21, 2015

Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers have found the hottest and most massive double star with components so close that they touch each other. The two stars in the extreme system VFTS 352 ...

Scientists give 'outlaw' particles less room to hide

October 21, 2015

Studying the highest-energy particles in the cosmos provides scientists with a way to test how well they understand the cutting edge of physics. Recently, scientists using a giant particle detector at the South Pole have ...

Recommended for you

NASA's space-station resupply missions to relaunch

November 29, 2015

NASA's commercial space program returns to flight this week as one of its private cargo haulers, Orbital ATK, is to launch its first supply shipment to the International Space Station in more than 13 months.

The hottest white dwarf in the Galaxy

November 25, 2015

Astronomers at the Universities of Tübingen and Potsdam have identified the hottest white dwarf ever discovered in our Galaxy. With a temperature of 250,000 degrees Celsius, this dying star at the outskirts of the Milky ...


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.