Errors in the Measurement of Global Warming Corrected

Aug 12, 2005

New Haven, Conn. — The effect of the sun’s heat on weather balloons largely accounts for a data discrepancy that has long contributed to a dispute over the existence of global warming, according to a report by scientists at Yale University and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

The report, to be published in the journal Science, says that direct heat of the sun on temperature probes of the weather balloon (radiosonde) probably explains the discrepancy between reports showing that atmospheric temperatures have been unchanged since the 1970’s, while temperatures at the Earth’s surface are rising.

For the last 40 years radiosonde temperature information has been collected twice each day from stations around the world at local times that correspond to 00:00 and 12:00 Greenwich Mean Time. Some measurements were taken in daylight, others in darkness.

“Even though models predict a close link between atmospheric and surface temperatures, there has been a large difference in the actual measurements,” said Steven C. Sherwood, associate professor of geology and geophysics at Yale, and lead author. “This has muddied the interpretation of reported warming.” Most scientists have concluded the surface warming has partly resulted from a buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

The key to the error in climate change estimates lay in instrument design, according to this study. With exposed sensors, measurement taken in daylight read too warm, and while solar heating had a measurable impact on the earlier designs, the effect became negligible in more recent designs.

“It’s like being outside on a hot day — it feels hotter when you are standing in the direct sun than when you are standing in the shade,” said Sherwood. “We can’t hang our hats on the old balloon numbers.”

After taking this problem into account, the researchers estimate there has been an increase of 0.2 degree Celsius (°C) in the average global temperature per decade for the last thirty years. Over the next century, global surface temperatures are expected to increase by 2 to 4°C. However, year-to-year and region to region increases may vary considerably, with a smaller increase in the tropics but 10 degrees or more possible in some Polar Regions.

“Unfortunately, the warming is in an accelerating trend — the climate has not yet caught up with what we’ve already put into the atmosphere,” said Sherwood. “There are steps we should take, but it seems that shaking people out of complacency will take a strong incentive.”

Co-authors on the paper were Cathryn Meyer at Yale and John Lanzante at the NOAA/ Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory at Princeton. The research was funded by the NOAA Climate and Global Change Program and the National Science Foundation.

Source: Yale University

Explore further: New Horizons spacecraft experiences anomaly

Related Stories

Australia on path to join supercontinent 'Amasia'

Apr 28, 2015

The possibility that Earth could have a supercontinent that would occupy two-thirds of the planet's surface in a couple of hundred million years' time is just one of the geological projects being investigated ...

Urban heat—not a myth, and worst where it's wet

Jul 09, 2014

A new Yale-led study quantifies for the first time the primary causes of the "urban heat island" (UHI) effect, a common phenomenon that makes the world's urban areas significantly warmer than the surrounding ...

Deforestation of sandy soils a greater climate threat

Apr 01, 2014

Deforestation may have far greater consequences for climate change in some soils than in others, according to new research led by Yale University scientists—a finding that could provide critical insights ...

Recommended for you

Uranus' moon Titania

15 hours ago

Like all of the Solar Systems' gas giants, Uranus has an extensive system of moons. In fact, astronomers can now account for 27 moons in orbit around Uranus. Of these, none are greater in size, mass, or surface ...

Image: Europa's blood-red scars

15 hours ago

Jupiter's moon Europa is a bizarre place. There is something undeniably biological about this image, sent back by NASA's Galileo spacecraft – the moon is scarred by deep red gashes, resembling the vibrant ...

User comments : 0

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.