The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V of the United Kingdom. The Order comprises five classes in civil and military divisions. In descending order of seniority, these are: Only the highest two ranks automatically cause an individual to become a knight or dame, an honour allowing the recipient to use the title "Sir" (male) or "Dame" (female) before their first name (though men can be knighted separately from this and other Orders of Chivalry). Honorary knighthoods, given to individuals who are not nationals of a realm where Queen Elizabeth II is Head of State, permit use of the honour as a post-nominal but not as a title before their name. Awards in the Order of the British Empire in the Commonwealth Realms were discontinued with the establishment of national systems of honours and awards such as the Order of Australia, the Order of Canada and the New Zealand Order of Merit. Foreign recipients are classified as honorary members of the Order they receive, and do not contribute to the numbers restricted to that Order as full members do. There is also a related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are not members
Did genetic links to modern maladies provide ancient benefits?
Psoriasis, a chronic skin condition, can cause rashes that itch and sting.
Research affirms sexual reproduction avoids harmful mutations
(Phys.org)—Sex or no sex? Using various species of the evening primrose (Oenothera) as his model, Jesse Hollister, a former University of Toronto post-doctoral fellow, and his colleagues have demonstrated strong support ...
Out of the pouch: Ancient DNA from extinct giant roos
Scientists have finally managed to extract DNA from Australia's extinct giant kangaroos—the mysterious marsupial megafauna that roamed Australia over 40,000 years ago.
Team proposes new model for snake venom evolution
Technology that can map out the genes at work in a snake or lizard's mouth has, in many cases, changed the way scientists define an animal as venomous. If oral glands show expression of some of the 20 gene families associated ...
New genetic evidence resolves origins of modern Japanese
Was there a single migration event or gradual mixing of cultures that gave rise to modern Japanese?
Tiny fish provides giant insight into how organisms adapt to changing environment
An Indiana University-Dartmouth College team has identified genes and regulatory patterns that allow some organisms to alter their body form in response to environmental change.
Herpes infected humans before they were human 1.6 million years ago
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have identified the evolutionary origins of human herpes simplex virus (HSV) -1 and -2, reporting that the former infected hominids before their evolutionary ...
Getting to the origins of photosynthesis
One of the most important areas in all of biology is the evolution of photosynthesis. Some species of single celled cyanobacteria, through photosynthesis, forever changed the atmosphere of the early Earth by filling it with ...
Most comprehensive study to date reveals evolutionary history of citrus
Citrus fruits—delectable oranges, lemons, limes, kumquats and grapefruits—are among the most important commercially cultivated fruit trees in the world, yet little is known of the origin of the citrus species and the ...
Snakes in evolutionary arms race with poisonous newt
The rough-skinned newt is easily one of the most toxic animals on the planet, yet the common garter snake routinely eats it. How does a newt which produces enough toxin to kill several grown humans almost immediately manage ...