The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V of the United Kingdom. The Order comprises five classes in civil and military divisions. In descending order of seniority, these are: Only the highest two ranks automatically cause an individual to become a knight or dame, an honour allowing the recipient to use the title "Sir" (male) or "Dame" (female) before their first name (though men can be knighted separately from this and other Orders of Chivalry). Honorary knighthoods, given to individuals who are not nationals of a realm where Queen Elizabeth II is Head of State, permit use of the honour as a post-nominal but not as a title before their name. Awards in the Order of the British Empire in the Commonwealth Realms were discontinued with the establishment of national systems of honours and awards such as the Order of Australia, the Order of Canada and the New Zealand Order of Merit. Foreign recipients are classified as honorary members of the Order they receive, and do not contribute to the numbers restricted to that Order as full members do. There is also a related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are not members
Most comprehensive study to date reveals evolutionary history of citrus
Citrus fruits—delectable oranges, lemons, limes, kumquats and grapefruits—are among the most important commercially cultivated fruit trees in the world, yet little is known of the origin of the citrus species and the ...
New deer mouse study examines muscle performance and high altitude adaptation
Life has adapted to all sorts of extreme environments on Earth, among them, animals like the deer mouse, shimmying and shivering about, and having to squeeze enough energy from the cold, thin air to fuel their bodies and ...
New genetic evidence resolves origins of modern Japanese
Was there a single migration event or gradual mixing of cultures that gave rise to modern Japanese?
Getting to the origins of photosynthesis
One of the most important areas in all of biology is the evolution of photosynthesis. Some species of single celled cyanobacteria, through photosynthesis, forever changed the atmosphere of the early Earth by filling it with ...
Scientists unlock tangled mysteries of DNA
Chromosomal proteins hold the key to our DNA and they are changing, according to Jose Eirin-Lopez, marine sciences professor in the Florida International University Department of Biological Sciences.
Turning a vole into a mighty rodent
Take a wild, common forest-dwelling mouse-like rodent, known as a vole, and subject it to 13 rounds of selection for increased aerobic exercise metabolism, and what do you get? A mighty "mouse" with a 48 percent higher peak ...
Study identifies first-ever human population adaptation to toxic chemical, arsenic
High up in the high Andes mountains of Argentina, researchers have identified the first-ever evidence of a population uniquely adapted to tolerate the toxic chemical arsenic.
Grand tree of life study shows a clock-like trend in new species emergence and diversity
Temple University researchers have assembled the largest and most accurate tree of life calibrated to time, and surprisingly, it reveals that life has been expanding at a constant rate.
Carnivorous plant packs big wonders into tiny genome
Great, wonderful, wacky things can come in small genomic packages.
Research finds that malaria parasites are unlikely to jump to humans
In recent years, public health experts have increasingly explored the idea of eliminating the most dangerous malaria-causing parasite. But they have questioned whether getting rid of this species, called ...
Did genetic links to modern maladies provide ancient benefits?
Psoriasis, a chronic skin condition, can cause rashes that itch and sting.
Out of the pouch: Ancient DNA from extinct giant roos
Scientists have finally managed to extract DNA from Australia's extinct giant kangaroos—the mysterious marsupial megafauna that roamed Australia over 40,000 years ago.
Research affirms sexual reproduction avoids harmful mutations
(Phys.org)—Sex or no sex? Using various species of the evening primrose (Oenothera) as his model, Jesse Hollister, a former University of Toronto post-doctoral fellow, and his colleagues have demonstrated ...
Team proposes new model for snake venom evolution
Technology that can map out the genes at work in a snake or lizard's mouth has, in many cases, changed the way scientists define an animal as venomous. If oral glands show expression of some of the 20 gene ...
Snakes in evolutionary arms race with poisonous newt
The rough-skinned newt is easily one of the most toxic animals on the planet, yet the common garter snake routinely eats it. How does a newt which produces enough toxin to kill several grown humans almost ...