Carbon

Radiocarbon dating (sometimes simply known as carbon dating) is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring radioisotope carbon-14 (C) to estimate the age of carbon-bearing materials up to about 58,000 to 62,000 years. Raw, i.e. uncalibrated, radiocarbon ages are usually reported in radiocarbon years "Before Present" (BP), "Present" being defined as 1950. Such raw ages can be calibrated to give calendar dates. One of the most frequent uses of radiocarbon dating is to estimate the age of organic remains from archaeological sites. When plants fix atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) into organic material during photosynthesis they incorporate a quantity of C that approximately matches the level of this isotope in the atmosphere (a small difference occurs because of isotope fractionation, but this is corrected after laboratory analysis). After plants die or they are consumed by other organisms (for example, by humans or other animals) the C fraction of this organic material declines at a fixed exponential rate due to the radioactive decay of C. Comparing the remaining C fraction of a sample to that expected from atmospheric C allows the age of the sample to be

Publisher
Elsevier
History
1964-present
Impact factor
4.893 (2010)
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Aligned carbon nanotube / graphene sandwiches

By in situ nitrogen doping and structural hybridization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene via a two-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD), scientists have fabricated nitrogen-doped aligned carbon nanotu ...

Sep 12, 2014
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Strengthening carbon fiber for vehicle use

Lighter-weight, fuel-efficient cars may be closer to reality thanks to Geelong researchers who are giving carbon fibre the gripping power it needs to be able to stand up to impacts from motorists.

Jun 17, 2014
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Carbon nanotubes grow in combustion flames

Professor Stephan Irle of the Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules (WPI-ITbM) at Nagoya University and co-workers at Kyoto University, Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL), and Chinese research institutions ...

Apr 01, 2014
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Distinctive body type aids long life and predation

Jellyfish (Cnidarian medusa) have unique body plans that violate a universal law of biology and facilitate their longevity and their propensity to form blooms, according to an international study involving ...

Feb 10, 2014
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Defining the graphene family tree

There has been an intense research interest in all two-dimensional (2D) forms of carbon since Geim and Novoselov's discovery of graphene in 2004. But as the number of such publications rise, so does the ...

Oct 16, 2013
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Graphene provides efficient electronics cooling

A layer of graphene can reduce the working temperature in hotspots inside a processor by up to 25 percent – which can significantly extend the working life of computers and other electronics. An international ...

Jul 03, 2013
4.9 / 5 (14) 4 | with audio podcast